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Patent and copyright law Understanding Patent and Copyright Law Patent and copyright law gives the inventor the exclusive rights to the invention. No one else can produce the invention for a set period of time under patent and copyright law. Patent and copyright law is set up to protect inventors. The law on patents can be found in the United States Constitution, Article 1, Section 8 and in Title 35 of the United States Code. The agency that is in charge of patent laws is a Federal Agency known as the Patent and Trademark Office. Anyone who applies for a patent will have their application reviewed by an examiner. The examiner will decide if a patent should be granted to the inventor. Individuals who have their patent application turned down can appeal it to the Patents Office Board of Appeals. Just because someone has a patent does not mean that they have the right to use, make or sell the invention. For instance, if a drug company comes up with a new drug, they can get a patent on it. However, it would not be available to be sold to the general public until the drug becomes approved by other regulatory bodies. Likewise, someone may invent an improvement to an existing product, yet they will not be allowed to produce or sell the item until they obtain a license to do so from the owner of the original patent holder. For someone to receive a patent, as stated, they must fill out an application on their invention. The application will entail the details of the invention and how it is made. In addition, the person applying for a patent must make claims that point to what the applicant deems or regards as his or her invention. A patent may have many claims with it. The claims protect the patent owner and notify the public exactly what the individual has patented or owns. If someone infringes upon patent and copyright law, it is usually enforced in a civil court setting. The owner of the patent will generally bring a civil lawsuit against the person who has infringed upon their patent and ask for monetary compensation. In addition, the patent owner can seek an injunction which would prohibit the violator from continuing to engage in any acts that would infringe upon their patent in the future. Many patent owners will make licensing agreements (or contracts) with others. These agreements allow another person or company to use someone?s patented invention in return for royalties. In addition, some patent holders who are competitors may agree to license their patents to each other to expand both of their profits. Most everything we use in our day to day life was invented by someone. That person had to seek out a patent for their invention. Patent and copyright law protects inventors from having their ideas and inventions stolen out from under them. This makes the playing field more level for individuals. Without these laws, the marketplace would be out of control and the small guy would probably be eaten alive by big business

Proctor and Gamble Great at the Freebie Thing Do you have a favorite manufacturer that you like to tap into for free product samples and coupons? For those in the know, the Proctor and Gamble Corporation is one of the best companies for getting your share of freebies. This popular manufacturer is well known as the creator of many fine household products. For freebie hunters, the Proctor and Gamble Corporation are known as one of the most reliable sources for awesome freebie deals and promotions. Here are some hints and tips at become at an ace at getting freebies from your favorite manufacturer. Get to Know the Proctor and Gamble Corporation for the Best Shot at Great Freebies If you want the best shot at getting the best freebies from Proctor and Gamble, you will find that they are very generous with their free samples and coupon freebies. But you will have to take the time to know the company. Peruse their website and get to know their promotion schedule. The Proctor and Gamble Corporation is a favorite with many freebie hunters because it provides consumers with a wide range of products and they even maintain a special webpage dedicated exclusively to their current promotions and offers. Once you have located this page on their official website, go ahead and bookmark it for future reference. Check with the site periodically to see what offers and promotions are currently on the table. Enable Flash to Get the Most Out of the Proctor and Gamble Page Recently, the Proctor and Gamble Corporation, along with many other streamlined websites, has added a Flash based scrolling design to display their current offers and promotions. In order to view these promotions, you will have to make sure that you have Flash enabled on your web browser. These scrolling offers are shown at the bottom of the page. Check these often and carefully as new offers are added periodically. Read the scrolling items carefully. Some of them will link you to official sweepstakes offers, while others will lead you straight to freebie offers and coupons. Selecting the Proctor and Gamble Offers that Most Interest You In order to get the best deals, visit the promotions page on the official Proctor and Gamble website. From there, you can select all the free offers that most interest you. The Proctor and Gamble webpage usually comes loaded with a healthy selection of free samples, sweepstakes and coupon offers. Another thing you can do to make sure that you always have access to great Proctor and Gamble promotions is to get on their mailing list. Make sure you select the products you are most interested in so that you will get pertinent mailers and coupons. Read the Fine Print on Proctor and Gamble Offers and Promotions When it comes to manufacturer promotions, time is of the essence. Most great deals and offers will not last forever. Make a note of the expiration date of the deals you are interested in. Read the fine print on the promotions. Most will only be available to United States residents. However, international customers do not have to despair. Simply look for the global link on the main page. This will connect you to other pages that offer you pertinent promotions for your country of residence. For the most part, Proctor and Gamble has established itself as a worthy generator of freebies, coupons and sweepstakes offers. Chances are that you will find your freebies in the mail within a few short weeks of making your initial request. Are There Any Risks Associated with Getting Proctor and Gamble Promotions? Some people are wary about handing over their personal contact information to a company. If this is a concern with you, make sure that you read the company's own privacy policy. As a general rule, you should avoid making requests and giving personal information to companies that do not offer you easy access to their privacy policy.

Web Hosting - Why Backups Are Essential One thing most web site owners have little time for is... anything! Anything other than focusing on their site content and the business or service it supports and the information it provides, that is. That means that administration often suffers, as it frequently must. There's only so much time in the day. But the one thing that you should never let slide are backups. They are like insurance. You rarely need it (you hope), but when you do you need it very badly. Performing regular backups - and testing them - doesn't have to be a nightmare. A little bit of forethought and effort and they can be automated to a high degree. And, they should be tested from time to time. Even when a backup appears to have gone without a hitch, the only way to know whether it's of any value is to attempt to restore the information. If it can't be restored, the backup is worthless. Even when the web hosting company provides the service, there is still some planning involved for the site owner. Hosting companies often rely on one or both of two methods. They backup everything (called a full backup), then backup anything which has changed since the last full backup (called an incremental backup). Of special interest are any configuration files that have been tailored. If you've modified the default installation of a software package, you want to be able to recapture or reproduce those changes without starting from scratch. Network configuration files, modifications to basic HTML files, CSS style sheets and others fall into the same category. If you have XML files, databases, spreadsheets or other files that carry product or subscriber information - about items purchased, for example, or people who signed up for a newsletter - those should get special attention, too. That's the lifeblood of your business or service. Lose them and you must start over. That can break your site permanently. It should go without saying that all HTML and related web site files that comprise visible pages should be backed up regularly. It isn't necessary to record every trivial change, but you can tailor backup software to exclude files or folders. Usually they're so small it isn't worth the trouble. But in some cases those small changes can add up in scenarios where there are many thousands of them. Here again, the backups are worthless if they can't be used. Even if the hosting company charges for doing so, it's worthwhile to test once or twice a year at least to ensure the data can be restored. That's especially true of database backups, which often involve special software and routines. Database files have a special structure and the information is related in certain ways that require backups be done differently. Developing a backup strategy can be straightforward. Start simply and review your plan from time to time, modifying it as your site changes and grows. But don't neglect the subject entirely. The day will come when a hard drive fails, or you get hacked or attacked by a virus, or you accidentally delete something important. When that day comes, the few minutes or hours you spent developing and executing a backup plan will have saved you days or weeks of effort.

Copyright law Understanding Copyright Law Copyright law is a set of laws that is used to regulate things such as movies, plays, poems, musical compositions, drawings, paintings, sculptures, software, photographs, sculptures, literary works, choreographic works, radio broadcasts, televisions broadcasts and more. Copyright law is only regulated to cover the manner or form in which the information or material is expressed. For instance, it does not cover the idea or facts which are represented in a work. In instances where a copyright does not exist, patents or trademarks may be in place which can impose legal restrictions. Copyright law states that the holder of the copyright has the right to make copies or reproduce the work to sell. They can also export or import the work, create derivative or adaptation of the original work, display or perform the work publicly and assign or sell the rights to someone else. Copyright law is set up to protect people from having someone do something with their copyrighted work or material. Someone that has a copyright may choose to exploit their copyrighted work, or they may choose not to. Many people debate whether copyright law and copyrights are moral rights or merely property rights. It is important to note that in the U.S. copyright law covers protection for published and unpublished works. Copyright law protection covers a work from the time it is created in a tangible form. The author or creator of the work immediately holds the copyright to the work and it is the property of the author or creator. No one else can claim copyright to it, unless the original copyright holder (the author or creator) gives or sells the rights to another person. Many people fail to understand that merely owning or possessing a work does not give them the copyright to it. Just because you have ownership of a copyrighted work does not mean that you own the copyright. Likewise, if you copy someone?s work and list their name on it, you are undertaking copyright infringement. Many people also fail to understand when copyright protection is secured. The moment a work is written or created and it is in physical tangible form or recorded it falls under copyright law. While it is recommended to register your work through the Copyright Office, if your work is not registered and someone steals your work, they have violated your copyright. Using a copyright notice is not required by law. However, many recommended that the copyright notice or symbol be used so remind the general public that the piece is under copyright. Anything that is created after 1977 is protected by copyright law for the lifetime of the author of the creator, plus an additional 70 years after the creator?s death. The public domain is a good source of information that is no longer under a copyright or work that was never under a copyright to begin with. Virtually all works that were created or published in the United States prior to 1923 are said to be in the public domain. Things that can be found in the public domain that are free of copyright law generally include generic facts and information, works that have a lapse in their copyrights (this encompasses works that were created prior to 1978) and materials and information put out by the United States government. In addition, you may find works in the public domain that are free of copyright law because it has been dedicated to the public domain.